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Questions and Answers

How does the up railroad drug test? Urine or hair?

Posted by Gary C
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A drug test is done with a spectrograph that takes the sample and searches for key compounds, normally ophids, cannabious, PCP, cocaine and amphetamines. It reads the colors produced when the substance is heated; the elements can be differentiated by their color when evaporated. Or it is tested with a test card that has a set of chemicals keyed to change color when exposed to the test compounds; like litmus paper.

When testing for drugs only a few key compounds are test for:
1. Cannabinoids (marijuana, hashish – tests for metabolite THCCOOH)
2. Cocaine (cocaine, benzoylecognine, cocaethylene)- tests for cocaine metabolite)
3. Amphetamines (amphetamine, methamphetamine)
4. Opiates (heroin, opium, codeine, morphine, 6-MAM)
5. Phencyclidine (PCP)
6. Alcohol

A urine sample is good for only the last few days as per this chart: Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drug_testin… It doesn't test for immediate drug usage.

Hair samples are used to test for long term drug use (90+ days). It is a more expensive test that requires more lab equipment. A spectrograph has to be used. Urine sample are easier to test and so cheaper. While a urine test can check for a lot of things in various ways (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urinalysis) only the key compounds of drugs and alcohol need to be tested for and that can be done with a special test card. A urine sample can be dropped on the card and if it changes color then is a positive. With hair samples the sample has to be cooked. Hair samples can be more accurate, but the urine sample card is so much easier to use and most business use a pre-ordered test card rather than actually sending them to a lab.

According to Wikipedia: Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drug_testin…
"Drug tests in the USA can be divided into two general groups, federally and non-federally regulated testing. Federally regulated testing started when Ronald Reagan enacted executive order 12564, requiring all federal employees to refrain from using illegal substances in specified DOT regulated occupations. Drug testing guidelines and processes, in these areas exclusively, are established and regulated (by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration or SAMHSA, formerly under the direction of the National Institute on Drug Abuse or NIDA) require that companies who use professional drivers, specified safety sensitive transportation and/or oil and gas related occupations, and certain federal employers, test them for the presence of certain drugs. These test classes were established decades ago, and include five specific drug groups. They do not always account for current drug usage patterns. For example, the tests sometimes exclude semi-synthetic opioids, such as oxycodone, oxymorphone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, etc., compounds that are also used in the United States.

1. Cannabinoids (marijuana, hashish – tests for metabolite THCCOOH)
2. Cocaine (cocaine, benzoylecognine, cocaethylene)- tests for cocaine metabolite)
3. Amphetamines (amphetamine, methamphetamine)
4. Opiates (heroin, opium, codeine, morphine, 6-MAM)
5. Phencyclidine (PCP)

While SAMHSA/NIDA guidelines only allow laboratories to report quantitative results for the "NIDA-5" on their official NIDA tests, many drug testing laboratories and on-site tests also offer a wider or "more appropriate" set of drug screens which may be more reflective of current drug abuse patterns. As noted above, these tests include synthetic pain killers such as Oxycodone, Oxymorphone, Hydrocodone, Hydromorphone, benzodiazepines (Valium, Xanax, Klonopin, Restoril) and barbiturates in other drug panels (a "panel" is a predetermined list of tests to run). The confirmation test (usually GC/MS, or LC/MS/MS) can tell the difference between chemically similar drugs such as methamphetamine and methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy), and in the absence of detectable amounts of methamphetamine in the sample, the lab will either report the sample as negative or report it as positive for MDMA. What the lab reports to the client depends upon whether MDMA was included in the panel as something to be tested for….

Urine drug screen
This procedure requires that one provide a sample of urine. Either a test card is used on site for immediate results (see "General" section), or the sample is sent away to a lab to undergo gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (also known as GCMS), high performance liquid chromatography or immunoassay analysis. The majority of tests administered in pre-hire and even most probate scenarios are of the immediate, and less accurate "at home" variety. Most "dip stick" type tests have higher thresholds for a positive than do the GCMS tests. If a positive result (drug presence indicated) is found, the sample is usually sent to a lab for GCMS confirmation. This is largely due to the costliness of GCMS labaratory testing and time it t.

What is a synthetic drug?

Posted by Ryan
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Salem is correct but excludes millions of other drugs (in fact, drugs not synthetic are usually advertised with such words as Natural, Organic, Herbal,…) while Gary K has the most inclusive simplest answer… And got thumbed down for some odd reason.

You asked about synthetic drugs, you did not specify recreational or medicinal and one could argue that Cannabinoids be placed on the medicinal side of the debate since 25 States and D.C. Have recognized it as such.

Gary K's answer most resembles the following from reputable source specialized in defining words in the English language. Though none had the term "synthetic drug" all were able to define "synthetic":
-Merriam-Webster: 4a" (1) : of, relating to, or produced by chemical or biochemical synthesis; especially : produced artificially <synthetic drugs> <synthetic silk> (2) : of or relating to a synfuel " Http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionar…
-Cambridge: "of or relating to products made from artificial substances, often copying a natural product:" Http://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dicti…
– Oxford: 1"(of a substance) made by chemical synthesis, especially to imitate a natural product:" Http://oxforddictionaries.com/us/definit…

This means that such common drugs as Tylenol or Nyquil and the majority of prescription medication are synthetic, not just Cannabinoids, Cocaine, Cathinones and Methamphetamine… In fact Marijuana is quite possibly one of the least altered medications out there.

EDIT: did I get thumbed down for stating facts? Or maybe it's because someone disagrees with reputable difinions of the English language…
If it's from the Asker (Ryan), you didn't mention what kind of drugs so my answer is 100% correct and not in any way misleading as it encompasses ALL synthetic drugs.
And if it was Salem, then why only mention the recreational variety and forget 99% of the market share? Oh and it's taken form "a" source as there can be more than one for just about any topic… And the best source you find to quote is a Maryland COUNTY source? I even had to dig thru the website to find that page because the link you provided returns a 404 error and it's parent page is inaccessible via their main website… Ei it's not made to be published just yet… Which would make sense because it only lists itself as a source, thus isn't peer reviewed, thus is not a reliable source… There are so many better resources out there that you could quote that would say the same thing if asked about illegal recreational synthetic drugs.

Friend drug test?

I'm almost positive that my friend does drugs ……and her mom just gave her a drug test and she came out negative……how can that be? Is it possible that something went wrong?

Posted by .
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Drug Testing And Other Possible Conditions Of Employment

While some may consider drug testing, credit checks, reference checks, and other pre-employment checks to be Gestapo tactics, they are a requirement for many companies. And, yes, in most cases they are legal. Remember that little section of legalese at the end of the employment application you didn’t really read? Your signature on that document is what gives them the right. So be ready to live up to the terms to which you have already agreed. By the way, if you look closely at your acceptance letter, you may notice that the offer is contingent on you passing whatever pre-employment checks and/or tests they may have. Even if it isn’t in the letter, it was probably contained within the application you signed earlier. Most employers consider these tests to be “conditions of employment,” and these conditions can be in effect even after you have started with the company.

An example of this “condition of employment” clause being invoked occurred when a recently hired grad was found to have lied about some information on the employment application. There have been numerous cases of graduates who have been hired and then fired by the new employer based solely on the conditions of that document. As long as you have been straight and honest, this should not be a problem for you.

On the other hand, the pre-employment check that many college students fear most is the pre-employment drug screening—and rightly so. A strong note of caution: if you have in the past or are presently using illegal drugs, you are strongly advised to stop using them—immediately! The day before—or even the week before—the test will likely be too late to achieve “clean” results. But if you make a commitment to steer clear far enough in advance, you may give your body enough time to detoxify and flush out. While many substances can clear in under a week, there are some that will stay with you much longer. I recently spoke with a graduate who had accepted employment, only to fail the drug test. Reason? He had used marijuana thirty-one days before the drug test—and failed.

There is no simple answer as to how long drugs will remain in your system, since the answer is influenced by the specific drug half-life, intensity of the usage, method of usage, length of usage, tolerance, fluid intake, body size, body fat, metabolism, andthe specific range which the drug testing lab uses to signify a “positive” for drug use. But the following table provides some general guidelines for the amount of time a drug can be detected by most standard drug tests:
Drug Detection Time
Alcohol 6–24 hours
Amphetamines 2–3 days
Barbituates 1 day to 3 weeks
Benzodiazepines 3–7 days
Cocaine 2–5 days
Codeine 3–5 days
Euphorics (MDMA, Ecstasy) 1–3 days
LSD 1-4 days
Marijuana (THC) 7–30 days
Methadone 3–5 days
Methaqualone 14 days
Opiates 1-4 days
Phencyclidine (PCP) 2–4 days
Steroids (anabolic) 14–30 days

Keep in mind that detection time listed above does not mean that the drug is fully expelled from your body within that amount of time—just that it has dissipated enough that it can no longer be accurately detected—or at least is not high enough to register a “positive” on a drug test. Most drugs are treated by the body as toxins which take time to eliminate. Rather than allow excess toxins to potentially affect vital organs, they are often stored in fat cells, making them typically difficult to release or detoxify from the body.

The basic drug test used by most corporate drug testing programs is called a “Five-Screen” (or “NIDA-5” or “SAMHSA-5”) which is testing for five types of drugs:

1. Cannabinoids (Marijuana, Hashish)
2. Cocaine (Cocaine, Crack, Benzoylecognine)
3. Opiates (Heroin, Opium, Codeine, Morphine)
4. Amphetamines (Amphetamines, Methamphetamines, Speed)
5. Phencyclidine (PCP, Angel Dust)

However, many drug testing firms now offer a “Ten-Screen” which expands to include five additional drugs:

1. Barbituates (Phenobarbital, Secobarbitol, Pentobarbital, Butalbital, Amobarbital)
2. Methaqualone (Qualuudes)
3. Benzodiazepines (Tranquilizers-Diazepam, Valium, Librium, Ativan, Xanax, Clonopin, Serax, Halcion, Rohypnol)
4. Methadone
5. Propoxyphene (Darvon compounds)

One major drug testing company is now offering the Ten-Screen for the same price as the Five-Screen. Result? Many employers end up testing for more, rather than less. Here is a list of other drugs that can be included in drug tests.

1. Ethanol (yes, that’s alcohol)
2. LSD
3. Hallucinogens (Psilocybin, Mescaline, MDMA, MDA, MDE)
4. Inhalents (Toluene, Xylene, Benzene)

If there is a drug out there, there is a drug test for it.

How about one more thing to worry about? Second-hand smoke from marijuana and crack cocaine can be absorbed into your hair. Problem? Some companies are now using hair testing to determine drug usage. Answer? Don’t even hang around others who are doing drugs. It can still be absorbed into your system and produce a positive test result. “I didn’t inhale . . .” is not a valid response. And sufficient second-hand smoke exposure can also cause failure of standard urine drug tests. You could fail both a primary and secondary test, with no recourse other than saying that it was someone else. It’s just not worth the risk.

So if you have been exposed to illegal drugs, your best insurance for a clean drug test is to stop using them immediately. And not just temporarily—permanently. Drug test or no drug test, using illegal drugs (and excesses of alcohol) will eventually catch up with you—sooner (if you are foolish enough to use them during work hours) or later (if you obliterate the rest of your life outside work).

Please note: this is not a lecture from Mom and Dad on the evils of drugs. This is a straightforward and honest warning from someone who has seen the negative effects that drugs can have in the workplace. Drugs have no place in work society today and never will.

If you are not a drug user and you fail the drug screening (it does happen), be as straightforward with the employer as possible, let them know that you are not a drug user and ask them if they would please do a confirmation test. Recent estimates from the Journal of Analytic Toxicology showed error rates of 5 to 14 percent on this initial test. The following is a list of over-the-counter medications which have been known to cause false positives in drug testing:

* Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin)
* Midol
* Nuprin
* Sudafed
* Vicks Nasal Spray
* Neosynephren
* Ephedra and Ephedrine-based products (often used in diet products)
* Detromethorphan
* Vicks 44

There are more, but suffice to say that not every drug test is accurate. That’s why almost all drug testing companies ask you in advance what medications you are presently taking or have taken in the last thirty days. Make sure you list them all, even over-the-counter medications. Some drug testing companies will either have a doctor (or other medical professional) personally interview those who fail a drug test to determine if there was a potential false positive.

If you do receive a failing grade (actually referred to as a “positive” on your drug test—this is one test you do NOT want a positive—you want all negatives) on your drug test, ask to be retested with a confirmation or secondary test. Many employers do not automatically perform the confirmation test since it is significantly more expensive than the initial test. However, if they are unwilling to offer retesting due to the expense, offer to pay the expense on your own and then use a different testing service—ideally a secondary testing provider recommended by the employer so that you won’t have a credibility problem with the second test. If you are turned down in your request or you have additional problems, you may want to seek the advice of a competent attorney for further counsel on your available options


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